Epigraph: Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, trans. Constance Farrington
(New York: Grove Press, 1963), 114.
1 See, e.g., Hazel Catherine Wolf, On Freedom’s Altar: The Martyr Complex in
the Abolition Movement (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1952); Rob-
ert Penn Warren, John Brown: The Making of a Martyr (New York: Payson and
Clark, 1929); Wallace Stegner, Joe Hill (New York: Doubleday, 1950); Francis
Russell, Tragedy in Dedham: The Story of the Sacco and Vanzetti Case (New York:
McGraw Hill, 1962); Gail Sheehy, Panthermania: The Clash of Black against Black
in One American City (New York: Harper and Row, 1971); Ilene J. Philipson,
Ethel Rosenberg: Beyond the Myths (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University
Press, 1993); Daniel Williams, Executing Justice: An Inside Account of the Case of
Mumia Abu-Jamal (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002).
2 Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951; New York: Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich, 1976), 385–86.
3   Ibid., 457.
4 On the NAACP, see Manfred Berg, Ticket to Freedom: The NAACP and the
Struggle for Black Political Integration (Gainesville: University Press of Florida,
2005); Gilbert Jonas, Freedom’s Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism
in America, 1909–1969 (New York: Routledge, 2004); Charles Kellogg, NAACP:
A History of the National Association of Colored People (Baltimore: Johns Hop-
kins University Press, 1967); John Hope Franklin and Genna Rae McNeill, eds.,
African Americans and the Living Constitution (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian
Institution Press, 1995); on the ACLU, see Diane Garey, Defending Everybody:
A History of the American Civil Liberties Union (New York: TV Books, 1998);
Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU, 2d ed.
(Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1997); William Preston, Aliens
and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, 1903–1933 (2nd. ed.; Urbana: Uni-
versity of Illinois Press, 1994); Zechariah Chafee, Free Speech in the United States
(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press), 1948.
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