NOTES
INTRODUCTION
Epigraphs are from the following sources: Osip Mandel'stam,
Sobranie sochinenii v
chetyrekh tomakh,
tom vtoroi (Moscow: Terra,
1991), 258;
and Iurii Olesha,
p'esy
(Mos-
cow: Iskusstvo,
1968), 149.
Though the author of the present book came upon its title independently, credit must
be given to those scholars who used Hemingway's example in a similar context. The
chapter on
Chevengur
in Tatiana Osipovich's
1988
dissertation "Sex, Love, and Family
in the Works of Andrei Platonov" is entitled "Utopia Realized: Men without Women."
Boris Paramonov also makes use of the phrase in his
1987
"Chevengur i okresnosti":
"Men without women: this is the image of the world discovered in 'Chevengur.' " Para-
monov finds the usage of the title of Hemingway's collection of war stories appropri-
ate to Soviet literature, since "war is perhaps the most comprehensive image of Soviet
reality" (Paramonov
367).
2 The works ofJames Fenimore Cooper and Herman Melville immediately come to mind
in this connection. For comprehensive treatments of masculinity in the American lit-
erature of the twentieth century, see Peter Schwenger's
Phallic Critiques: Masculinity
and Twentieth-Century Literature,
Jopi Nyman's
Men Alone: Masculinity, Individual-
ism, and Hard-Boiled Fiction,
and Donald J. Greiner's
Women Enter the Wilderness:
Male Bonding and the American Novel of the 1980s.
The first chapter of the last-named
work establishes Cooper's
Leatherstocking Tales
as the model for "male bonding" in the
American literature that followed it (Greiner
6-28).
Masculinity in British literature is
analyzed in Graham Dawson's
Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire, and the Imag-
ining of Masculinities,
and David Rosen's
The Changing Fictions of Masculinity,
while
Barbara Spackman's
Fascist Virilities,
draws on a great deal of literary material in order
to discuss the rhetoric of masculinity in fascist Italy. For a more international perspec-
tive on literary masculinity, see Peter
F.
Murphy's collection
Fictions of Masculinity:
Crossing Cultures, Crossing Sexualities.
3 In her article "The Strong-Woman Motif," Vera Dunham takes this point further: where
"Russian womanhood" is extolled throughout the history of Russian literature, "it is
impossible to speak as emphatically of a binding motif extolling the heroism of men"
(462).
The place of the hero is preempted by the heroine, and "[sltrong men seem to
be punished for their masculinity and self assertion with early death ... Men
qua
men
are disappointing"
(462-63).
The masculinization of postrevolutionary literature can
be said to overcompensate for the weak heroes of the Russian classics, and the pas-
sive heroes of Babel and Olesha appear even more ineffectual against the backdrop of
revolutionary heroics.
4 Heldt argues that in the works of Turgenev and Dostoevsky, the female character is
"a mere foil for the male and his larger preoccupation, not a true heroine on whom
the events of the plot center"
(13).
Joe Andrew's study of women in Russian literature
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