Epigraphs are from the following sources: Osip Mandel'stam,
Sobranie sochinenii v
chetyrekh tomakh,
tom vtoroi (Moscow: Terra,
1991), 258;
and Iurii Olesha,
cow: Iskusstvo,
1968), 149.
Though the author of the present book came upon its title independently, credit must
be given to those scholars who used Hemingway's example in a similar context. The
chapter on
in Tatiana Osipovich's
dissertation "Sex, Love, and Family
in the Works of Andrei Platonov" is entitled "Utopia Realized: Men without Women."
Boris Paramonov also makes use of the phrase in his
"Chevengur i okresnosti":
"Men without women: this is the image of the world discovered in 'Chevengur.' " Para-
monov finds the usage of the title of Hemingway's collection of war stories appropri-
ate to Soviet literature, since "war is perhaps the most comprehensive image of Soviet
reality" (Paramonov
2 The works ofJames Fenimore Cooper and Herman Melville immediately come to mind
in this connection. For comprehensive treatments of masculinity in the American lit-
erature of the twentieth century, see Peter Schwenger's
Phallic Critiques: Masculinity
and Twentieth-Century Literature,
Jopi Nyman's
Men Alone: Masculinity, Individual-
ism, and Hard-Boiled Fiction,
and Donald J. Greiner's
Women Enter the Wilderness:
Male Bonding and the American Novel of the 1980s.
The first chapter of the last-named
work establishes Cooper's
Leatherstocking Tales
as the model for "male bonding" in the
American literature that followed it (Greiner
Masculinity in British literature is
analyzed in Graham Dawson's
Soldier Heroes: British Adventure, Empire, and the Imag-
ining of Masculinities,
and David Rosen's
The Changing Fictions of Masculinity,
Barbara Spackman's
Fascist Virilities,
draws on a great deal of literary material in order
to discuss the rhetoric of masculinity in fascist Italy. For a more international perspec-
tive on literary masculinity, see Peter
Murphy's collection
Fictions of Masculinity:
Crossing Cultures, Crossing Sexualities.
3 In her article "The Strong-Woman Motif," Vera Dunham takes this point further: where
"Russian womanhood" is extolled throughout the history of Russian literature, "it is
impossible to speak as emphatically of a binding motif extolling the heroism of men"
The place of the hero is preempted by the heroine, and "[sltrong men seem to
be punished for their masculinity and self assertion with early death ... Men
are disappointing"
The masculinization of postrevolutionary literature can
be said to overcompensate for the weak heroes of the Russian classics, and the pas-
sive heroes of Babel and Olesha appear even more ineffectual against the backdrop of
revolutionary heroics.
4 Heldt argues that in the works of Turgenev and Dostoevsky, the female character is
"a mere foil for the male and his larger preoccupation, not a true heroine on whom
the events of the plot center"
Joe Andrew's study of women in Russian literature
Previous Page Next Page