NOTES
INTRODUCTION
1. John D’Emilio, “Capitalism and Gay Identity,” in The Lesbian and Gay Studies
Reader, ed. Henry Abelove, Michèle Aina Barale, and David Halperin (New York:
Routledge, 1993), 467–76; Vladimir Lenin, Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capital-
ism: A Pop­ u ­ lar Outline (1916), repr. ed. (New York: International Publishers, 1969).
2. To be clear, many scholars whose work I draw from and to whom I owe utang ng
loob (Filipino for a “debt of gratitude”) have considered nonnormative gender-­
sexuality in a Philippine colonial and postcolonial context. However, they all
examine later time periods: see, e.g., Kale Fajardo, Filipino Crosscurrents: Oceanog-
raphies of Seafaring, Masculinities, and Globalization (Minneapolis: University of
Minnesota Press, 2011); Martin Manalansan, Global Divas: Filipino Gay Men in the
Diaspora (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Martin Joseph Ponce, Be-
yond the Nation: Diasporic Filipino Literature and Queer Reading (New York: New
York University Press, 2012); Neferti Tadiar, Fantasy Production: Sexual Economies
and other Philippine Consequences for the New World Order (Hong Kong: Hong
Kong University Press, 2006). J. Neil Garcia’s monograph, Philippine Gay Culture:
Binibae to Bakla, Sihalis to msm (1996), repr. ed. (Quezon City: University of the
Philippines Press, 2009), which impressively examines a range of gender-­sexual
acts and identities in the Philippines from the pre-­Spanish colonial period to the
1990s, does not cover the early U.S. colonial era.
3. Ann Stoler, Along the Archival Grain: Epistemic Anxieties and Colonial Common
Sense (Prince­ton, NJ: Prince­ton University Press, 2009), 1.
4. M. Jacqui Alexander, Pedagogies of Crossing: Meditations on Feminism, Sexual
Politics, Memory, and the Sacred (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005),
70. Many Philippine and Philippine American scholars have called attention
to U.S. historical forgetting around colonialism in the Philippines: see, e.g., Oscar
Campomanes’s groundbreaking essay “Filipinos in the United States and Their
Literature of Exile,” in Reading the Literatures of Asian America, ed. Shirley
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