1 Racialization describes the sociohistorical process by which racial catego-
ries are created, inhabited, and—when people of color, along with antiracist
whites, challenge the racial assumptions and theories behind everyday ‘‘com-
mon sense’’ ideology—transformed or destroyed. Race is a powerful social
construct, one which signifies supposedly innate di√erences through cultural
representations and symbolic stereotypes, and which structures institutional
inequality by reorganizing and redistributing resources; Omi and Winant,
Racial Formation.
2 On the Mexican American political generation, see Mario García, Mexican
Americans, 3, 5. See also Richard García, ‘‘Mexican American Mind’’; Richard
García, Rise of the Mexican-American Middle Class; and Gutíerrez, Walls and
3 The music and lyrics of ‘‘Got My Mojo Working’’ are credited to composer
Preston Foster, but Muddy Waters appropriated the song after hearing Ann
Cole perform it live while on tour with her. Jim Morrison used the word mojo
in the Doors’ hit song ‘‘L.A. Woman’’ in 1971. B. B. King and Buddy Guy each
recorded a version of ‘‘Got My Mojo Working’’ in 1977, as did Conway Twitty
in 1987. Mike Myers helped popularize the term mojo to the world in his 1997
and 1999 Austin Powers films, where it was used to signify the lead character’s
libido and sex appeal. The British music magazine MOJO has kept the word,
and its historical connection to popular music, in circulation, while ‘‘Got My
Mojo Working’’ has been recorded by new generations of artists throughout
the United States and Europe.
4 American Heritage Dictionary, 1132.
5 Major, From Juba to Jive, 307. On mojo as ‘‘personal magic’’ that alters ‘‘the
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