1 All amounts are U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
2 Graziano Battistella (2004) explains that the Philippines Overseas Employment
Administration maintains records only on balik- mangagagaw, or “rehires.” These
are contracted Filipino laborers who have had their contracts renewed. This
creates limitations in calculating a more accurate ﬁgure for the actual number of
Filipinos who return either temporarily or permanently.
3 For Grewal (2005), space is more of a set of logics than a physical place. This
fundamental reconceptualization provides an analytical means to move away
from U.S.-centered discourses within cultural and ethnic studies and shift
toward the examination of processes of imperialism and governmentality.
“America” becomes understood as an idea that “produced many kinds of agency
and diverse subjects as a discourse of neoliberalism making possible struggles
for rights through consumerists’ practices and imaginaries that came to be used
both inside and outside the territorial boundaries of the United States” (2).
4 Vergara (2009, 14– 15) pays particular attention to Tölölyan’s quote, “It makes
more sense to think of diasporan or diasporic existence as not necessarily in-
volving a physical return but rather a re- turn, a repeated turning to the concept
and/or the reality of the homeland and other diasporan kin through memory,
written and visual texts, travel, gifts and assistance.”
5 Here I am thinking of Lieba Faier’s (2013) use of “aﬀective investments” as a con-
ceptual tool for understanding the dialectical process occurring between larger
state projects of economic development and the everyday laboring of individual
migrants working overseas.
6 The Filipinos were, on the one hand, uniquely skilled and educated so that they
were viewed as a desirable pool of migrants who could ﬁll various labor gaps
throughout the U.S. economy; on the other hand, many of these migrants were
also capable of immigrating to the United States regardless of their lack of skills
and education owing to stipulations within the act that allowed family members
to be reunited with family who had already settled in various parts of the United