NOTES
I
Potent Polygamists and Chaste Monogamists
I.
Numerous Chinese sources relate the general features and history of polygamy
and concubinage, e.g., Chen Dongyuan,
1926;
Chen Guyuan,
1936;
and Chen Peng,
1990.
In English, see Jaschok,
1988,
and Watson and Ebrey,
1991;
and on women,
marriage, and concubinage in the Song, see Ebrey,
1993, The Inner Quarters,
which
provides useful background to this study. Ebrey notes an important shift in the Song
dynasty. the "growth in the market for women as maids, concubines, courtesans, and
prostitutes"
(265).
She states that the "great growth in the money economy in the
Sung and the development of commercialized cities" coincided with a growing ten-
dency among men to go from merely visiting pleasure quarters to actually purchas-
ing women to bring home as concubines
(217-18).
2.
See Fang,
1986.
Instead of renqing, the term yan qing, "telling of feelings," is
sometimes used.
3.
Naquin and Rawski,
1987:
x-xi.
4. &
summarized by Naquin and Rawski,
1987: 106.
5. See Naquin and Rawski,
1987: 74.
For an early example in fiction of opium addic-
tion, see Yaguan lou, circa
1820.
6. In my application of these terms and methods, I am inspired by the psychoanalytic
theories of Freud, Jacques Lacan, and recent feminist critics such as Jane Gallop,
Naomi Schor, and Kaja Silverman.
7.
On this distinction, see Coward and Ellis,
1977:
chs.
5,
6; Easthope,
1991: 130-32;
and Silverman,
1992: 29-35.
8. In Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis, the symbolic order is primarily struc-
tured by the Oedipus complex (instead of Oedipus, however, I will substitute pa-
triarchal polygamist). Lacanian theory also speaks of the Name-of-the-Father and the
symbolic role of the phallus. The word "symbolic" is Significant in distinguishing
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