Notes
Introduction  South Asian Muslim Youth
in the United States
1
High school youth commonly referred to Latinos and La-
tinas and Latin American students as “Spanish.”
2
See appendix A for detailed information on the study’s
research methods, including the interviews.
3
For example, the national population of Indian Americans
was 1,678,765 in 2000, according to the U.S. Census (U.S.
Census Bureau, 2000 Census).
4
The economic struggles of these often invisible Indian
Americans challenge the model minority caricature: the
1990 U.S. Census found that 7.4 percent of Indian Ameri-
can families fall below the poverty line, slightly more than
white American families (7 percent) (Hing 1993).
5
Wellford’s population is 68.1 percent white American, 11.9
percent African American, 11.9 percent Asian American,
and 7.4 percent Latino and Latina. Median household  in-
come in 1999 was $47,979, which is above the national  me-
dian, but there were also 12.9 percent individuals living be-
low poverty level, slightly above the national level, possibly
due to the significant presence of students.
6
In 2000–2002, 33 percent of students had a first language
other than English and 14 percent were in the bilingual
program, which suggests that the immigrant student pop-
ulation in the school is somewhere between these figures.
7
See Suzanne Shanahan 1999 on the power of scripts of
citizenship.
8
Jeff Coen, “Hate Crimes Reports Reach Record Level,”
Chicago Tribune, October 9, 2001.
9
Jane Lampan, “Under Attack, Sikhs Defend Their Re-
ligious Liberties,” Christian Science Monitor, October 31,
2001.
10
Associated Press, San Jose, Calif., “Hate Crime Reports
Down, Civil Rights Complaints Up,” October 25, 2001;
“Hate Crimes on Muslims Show Rise,” Boston Globe, No-
vember 26, 2002, A11.
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