Introduction South Asian Muslim Youth
in the United States
High school youth commonly referred to Latinos and La-
tinas and Latin American students as “Spanish.”
See appendix A for detailed information on the study’s
research methods, including the interviews.
For example, the national population of Indian Americans
was 1,678,765 in 2000, according to the U.S. Census (U.S.
Census Bureau, 2000 Census).
The economic struggles of these often invisible Indian
Americans challenge the model minority caricature: the
1990 U.S. Census found that 7.4 percent of Indian Ameri-
can families fall below the poverty line, slightly more than
white American families (7 percent) (Hing 1993).
Wellford’s population is 68.1 percent white American, 11.9
percent African American, 11.9 percent Asian American,
and 7.4 percent Latino and Latina. Median household in-
come in 1999 was $47,979, which is above the national me-
dian, but there were also 12.9 percent individuals living be-
low poverty level, slightly above the national level, possibly
due to the signiﬁcant presence of students.
In 2000–2002, 33 percent of students had a ﬁrst language
other than English and 14 percent were in the bilingual
program, which suggests that the immigrant student pop-
ulation in the school is somewhere between these ﬁgures.
See Suzanne Shanahan 1999 on the power of scripts of
Jeﬀ Coen, “Hate Crimes Reports Reach Record Level,”
Chicago Tribune, October 9, 2001.
Jane Lampan, “Under Attack, Sikhs Defend Their Re-
ligious Liberties,” Christian Science Monitor, October 31,
Associated Press, San Jose, Calif., “Hate Crime Reports
Down, Civil Rights Complaints Up,” October 25, 2001;
“Hate Crimes on Muslims Show Rise,” Boston Globe, No-
vember 26, 2002, A11.