N otes
1. Jean Baudrillard, America, trans. Chris Turner (London and New York: Verso,
1998), 54.
2. Albert Whitney, Man and the Motorcar (New York: New Jersey Department of
Law and Public Safety, 1949), 59.
3. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (Colonial Press, 1835/1900).
4. Automobility has come to mean many things for many people. Here are a few
of the more significant ways it has been understood. First, automobility refers to
the increased mobility that automobiles and other forms of personal motorized
transportation allow. This is something of an individual centered approach and
typical of what we might characterize as the American vernacular understand-
ing. Second, it refers to the increasingly automatic nature of mobility. Through
new technologies, driving continues to be divorced from physicality. This is a
characteristic that I will deal with explicitly in the final chapter. Third, the auto
in automobility suggests the increased singularity and insularity that automo-
biles allowed for. The individual, partially because of increases in mobility, was
seen as being less dependent upon others, locale, or even time. These aspects of
automobility emphasize a type of freedom, which in turn is both the means for
and a site of governance particularly important for neoliberalism and a point
emphasized by James Hay (“Unaided Virtues: The (Neo)Liberalization of the
Domestic Sphere,” in Television and New Media: 1:1, Feb. 2000: 53–73). Most all-
encompassing, the British sociologist John Urry suggests that we cannot look
only at the automobile itself, but what he calls an automobility system. He states,
“Sociology has ignored the key significance of automobility, which reconfig-
ures civil society, involving distinct ways of dwelling, travelling and socializing
in, and through, an automobilised time-space. Civil societies of the west are
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