Notes
Prologue
1 Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, ix.
2 ScarredbystandoffsoverroyalprerogativesonthePeninsula,Castilewouldneve
colonists the liberties secured by Catalonia or the Basque country.Viceregal ‘‘v
would meet in municipal councils like their European counterparts, but they ne
joyedthesamerighttolimitroyaldemands.Theviceroyalwayshadthefinalwo
overviews of Spanish conquest and colonization see Elliott, ‘‘The Spanish Co
and ‘‘Spain and America before 1700’’; Gibson, ‘‘Indian Societies under Spanish
and Spalding, De indio a campesino.
3 Colonization, of a piece with Spanish state-making, took various specific form
time and across the empire’s vast reach.
4 SeeGibson,‘‘IndianSocietiesunderSpanishRule’’;Elliott,‘‘SpainandAmerica
1700’’; and Spalding, De indio a campesino, 31–126. Spain also recognized the
standingofnativeheadmen,who,asintermediaryagentsfortheCrown,wereex
from tribute and labor obligations. Spalding, De indio a campesino, 31–60. For
sic studyof colonial categories of race see Mörner, Race Mixture in the Historyo
America.
5 See Corrigan and Sayer, The Great Arch.
6 Of course, students of Spanish history have long known of the Inquisition’s
craticsophistication.SeeElliott,ImperialSpain,1469–1716(1964),andKamen,Th
ish Inquisition.
7 Kamen,TheSpanishInquisition,193.TheInquisition’semphasisonregulationsan
dards was part of a significant trend in early modern jurisprudence and adminis
See Francisco Tomás y Valiente, La tortura en España; Lewin, El Santo Oficio e
rica, 113–34, for a comparison of the law and the practice of torture; and Her
administración como un fenómeno social. Corrigan and Sayer make a similar poin
English jurisprudence in The Great Arch, esp. 31–72, as do Wolfram Fischer an
Lundgreen about England and other European states, ‘‘The Recruitment and T
ofAdministrativeandTechnicalPersonnel,’’inTilly,ed., TheFormationof Natio
inWesternEurope,456–61.Foramoredetailedexplorationofthewaysinwhich
quisition’s judicial apparatus—and its reliance on denunciations in particular—
the prosecution, see my chapter ‘‘Inquisition as Bureaucracy’’; for more about
of torture, see my chapter ‘‘Mysteries of State.’’
8 Again,andnottobeunderemphasized,theSpanishInquisition,unlikeotherEu
tribunals, was under the control of the Crown, not the pope. So, even though
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