1. “Switzerland to Give Back Abacha Millions,” bbc News, 17 April 2002, http://
2. “Maryam Abacha Launches a Major Oﬀensive to ‘Save’ the Abacha Loot,” Tempo
(Lagos), 23 September 1999.
3. For an excellent ethnography of these schemes in southeastern Nigeria, see
Smith, Culture of Corruption.
4. Federal Republic of Nigeria, Criminal Code, section 419.
5. See Pierce, “Punishment and the Po litical Body.”
6. Smith, Culture of Corruption, 5.
7. Transparency International, http:// www . transparency . org / about _ us, accessed
20 July 2011.
8. Olivier de Sardan, “Moral Economy of Corruption in Africa?” Olivier de Sardan
uses “corruption- complex” to designate a variety of practices (not simply the
diversion of money but nepotism, influence peddling, deviations from the norms
of bureaucratic rules), all of which would fall under what I have termed material
practices interpreted through a technocratic paradigm.
9. Anderson, Imagined Communities; Vail, Invention of Tribalism in Southern Africa;
Ranger, “Invention of Tradition”; “Invention of Tradition Revisited”; Young, Eth-
nicity and Politics in Africa.
10. Philps, “Deﬁning Po litical Corruption”; Barcham, Hindess, and Larmour,
11. Johnston, “Search for Deﬁnitions”; Kreike and Jordan, Corrupt Histories.
12. van Klaveren, “Corruption as a Historical Phenomenon.”
13. My thanks to Tomoko Masuzawa for her insight on the intellectual context of
nineteenth- century Eu rope.
14. Gash, Politics in the Age of Peel; Key, Politics, Parties and Pressure Groups; Parrillo,
Against the Proﬁt Motive; Guyer, “Repre sentation without Taxation.”