In Blank Darkness, Christopher L. Miller argues that Africanist discourse in
French produces ‘‘an object aberrant to the system that created it,’’ namely an
image of Africa as a projected ‘‘nullity’’ (6, 17).

See Apter, Continental Drift, chap. 11, ‘‘Impotent Epic.’’

See Slotkin, Gunfighter Nation.

Seddon, ‘‘Dreams and Disappointments,’’ 198.

Ibid., 203. See A. Layachi, The United States and North Africa.

Bowles, interview, Feb. 8, 1996. I have not seen any published accounts of
Bowles’s trip to Biskra.
Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie, 197–98; Geo√ Crowther and Hugh Finlay, Morocco,
Algeria and Tunisia, 314.

See Wright, Politics of Design, and Rabinow, French Modern.

See my essay ‘‘The Well-Built Wall of Culture.’’
See Kaplan, The Arabists.
Said, Culture and Imperialism, 289.
Giles, Virtual Americas, 263. Giles’s interest in virtualization as a critical
process emphasizes ‘‘reflection and estrangement’’ and a comparative angle of
vision (in his case, the United States and Great Britain) by which to denaturalize
the assumptions framing cultural narratives of the United States and ‘‘how its
own indigenous representations of the ‘natural’ tend to revolve tautologously,
reinforcing themselves without reference to anything outside their own charmed
circle’’ (2).
Young, Postcolonialism, 59.
Pyle, Here Is Your War, 60–61.
Melani McAlister has argued that American discourse relating to the Mid-
dle East since 1945 is marked by what she calls ‘‘post-Orientalism,’’ which marks
‘‘the period after World War II when American power worked very hard to
fracture the old European logic and to install new frameworks’’ (Epic Encounters,
11). There is much to recommend in McAlister’s book. However, she defines
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