1 Osborne, ‘‘Milton Friedman’s Smile,’’ 339.
2 The municipio of Riosucio extends just over 300 square kilometers and has a popula-
tion of around 50,000. The 1993 national census counted a total of 43,511 inhabi-
tants in the municipio of Riosucio, 15,915 of whom resided in the cabecera. When
they were asked if they belonged to an ‘‘ethnicity, indigenous group, or community,’’
17,790 inhabitants (41 percent) identified themselves as indigenous; most of those
who did so lived in rural, outlying areas rather than the cabecera. A total of 135 other
respondents self-identified as black when asked the same question. The information
on the 1993 census was provided by telephone and electronic mail, on 9 August 1999
and 18 August 1999, by Yolanda Bodnar and Tatiana Rojas of the Departamento
Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (dane); see also Colombia, dane, XVI Censo
Nacional de Población y V de Vivienda, Caldas. Riosucio, Caldas, should not be
confused with another mixed-race and violently contested Colombian town, Río
Súcio, which is in the Department of Chocó.
3 Quote is from Bueno Rodríguez, ‘‘Reseña histórica del Carnaval de Riosucio,’’ 639.
For a mid-twentieth-century example of a Colombian town in which Indian and
mestizo barrios were separated by a fence, see Reichel-Dolmatoff and Reichel-
Dolmatoff, The People of Aritama.
4 Germán Arciniegas to Otto Morales Benítez, in VI Encuentro de la Palabra, 29.
5 Human rights groups report more than 25,000 homicides annually out of a Colom-
bian population of about 36 million. Amnesty International reports that in 1999,
‘‘more than 3,500 people were victims of politically motivated violence, scores ‘dis-
appeared,’ and an estimated 250,000 people were forced to flee their homes. At least
1,000 people were kidnapped by armed opposition groups and paramilitary organiza-
tions’’ (Amnesty International, Report 2000).
6 ‘‘Informe . . . Alcaldía Provincial de Marmato, Riosucio 8 de Octubre de 1906,’’
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