notes
1. Beginnings
1. The relationship between music and Islamic belief is a complex one—but
one increasingly under scrutiny in marginal Muslim spaces, particularly in secu-
lar countries in parts of West Africa, South Africa, and the United States, where
musicians more and more are integrating their music making with their faith
and where starting in the 1960s several African American jazz musicians have
converted to Islam. Students at the University of Pennsylvania have explored
the relationship between music and Islam, particularly as it is manifest in popu-
lar culture, in our field methods classes. See the website http://www.sas.upenn
.edu/music/westphillymusic/ for films made by graduate students about this
subject.
2. When I first met Sathima she would talk about the Chelsea or the Chel-
sea Hotel, but a few years ago she told me the owner wanted it called the Hotel
Chelsea. So we have changed our language accordingly.
3. Like Sathima, my parents were aware of the two worlds, but, like many
white, Eng lish- speaking South Africans, they initially felt powerless to effect
change. My father would begin to address issues of racial injustice through his
place in the Presbyterian Church in KwaZulu Natal in the 1970s and 1980s. My
mother has similarly addressed the inequalities in her work as an early childhood
educator and author of training manuals for grass- roots women now published
in numerous local languages. Our family was more the exception than the norm
when we lived in Cape Town and later moved to Durban.
2. A Home Within
1. Ramsey’s reflexivity and explanation (2003) parallels my own reflections
on the relationship between lived experience and intellectual inquiry (1999,
chap. 1).
2. For different but equally important accounts, see Layne (1995), Bruinders
(2005), Nixon (1997).
3. Interview with Abdullah Ibrahim by wncu jazz dJ Aasim Inshirah, in
Senegal, ca. 2000/2001.
4. See discussion of internal dispossession in Field (2001).
5. The reputation for tolerance is largely owing to a series of ordinances put in
place by the British in the early nineteenth century, one of which was the eman-
cipation of slavery (1834, and realized in 1838); another allowed greater mobility
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