The musical careers I have examined in this book represent at least four dis-
tinct patterns of transnational interaction. Oscar Alemán and Arco Iris cre-
ated versions of foreign genres for consumption by domestic audiences. Lalo
Schifrin and Gato Barbieri also worked in foreign genres, but they aimed their
products primarily at the North American market. Astor Piazzolla and Mer-
cedes Sosa were specialists in Argentine musical forms who incorporated for-
eign influences to attract audiences both at home and abroad. Fi nally, Sandro
and Gustavo Santaolalla in ven ted new genres or subgenres that appealed to
audiences throughout Latin Amer i ca.
These four patterns suggest the variety of ways that the history of Argen-
tine pop u lar music has been shaped by the transnational context in which
it is embedded. At dif er ent moments and toward dif er ent ends, Argentine
musicians have listened to and borrowed from their counter parts in Eu rope,
North Amer i ca, and Latin Amer i ca. Similarly, they have created music for
both the domestic market and for vari ous distinct foreign audiences, tailor-
ing their creations to meet a specific set of assumptions and aesthetic prefer-
ences in each case. In itself, this diversity of influence and audience rebuts
accounts that reduce the globalization of pop u lar music to a simple story of
homogenization or cultural imperialism. And yet, this is not to dismiss the
very real power diferentials that shape global culture. All Argentine pop u-
lar musicians have had to navigate a deeply unequal field constructed by the
transnational music business. Each of the musicians analyzed in this book
recorded for one or more of the major multinational corporations that domi-
nated this business, a fact that had a significant influence on the music they
produced. In the last instance, it was the men who ran these corporations
who deci ded what sort of music would be recorded and to which audience it
would be marketed.
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