INDEX
Aalmi Majlis Taha√uz Khatm-
e-Nubuwwat, 108–9, 184
adab, 39
adat, 193
a√ect, 24, 41, 106, 114–15, 133, 145–46,
158, 173, 229 n. 5
a≈rmation, 15, 24, 79–80, 82–84, 88,
115, 119, 123, 134, 145, 158, 162, 177–
78, 204, 215 n. 28
Agamben, Giorgio, 145
Ahl-e Hadis, 2–5, 23, 28, 33–36, 52, 122,
133, 156, 219 n. 8, 219 n. 11, 220 n. 15;
as wahabis, 35
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam, 91, 102, 109, 117–
18, 131. See also Ahmadis; Ahmadiyya
Movement; Iqbal, Muhammad
Ahmadis, 14, 18–19, 23, 49, 52, 54, 89,
91–93, 99, 104, 113–17; as non-Muslim
minority, 107, 110; in Ordinance XX,
108, 111; riots against, 86, 96; theologi-
cal labels for, 101–3, 106, 109. See also
Ahmad, Mirza Ghulam; Ahmadiyya
movement; apostasy; Iqbal, Muham-
mad
Ahmadiyya movement, 7, 10, 14, 18, 33,
69, 91–92. See also Ahmad, Mirza
Ghulam; Ahmadis; Iqbal, Muhammad
Ahmed, Asad A., 203, 215 n. 3
Ahmed, Ashfaque, 194
akhlaq, 69
Aligarh Muslim University. See Muham-
madan Anglo-Oriental College
alim, 81, 95, 104, 135, 150, 155, 183, 185–
86, 192
‘amal, 186
Ambedkar, B. R., 61
‘amil, 125, 135–38, 141, 217 n. 5, 218 n. 8,
220 n. 15
Anderson, Benedict, 223 n. 9
angels, 127–28, 133
animism, 65
Annual of Urdu Studies (Shamsur Rahman
Faruqi), 194
Answer to Modernism (Maulana Ashraf Ali
Thanawi), 81
apostasy, 92, 109, 122, 124, 204, 215 n. 3
‘aqida, 69, 125, 140, 173, 188
Arabian Nights, 142
architecture, 39, 219 n. 6
argumentation, 1, 10, 121, 170; as bahas,
10; errors in or excesses of, 184–85;
through the law, 92; as striving, 11, 146.
See also debate; disputation
Asad, Muhammad, 18, 57, 84–88, 215
n. 29. See also individual works
Asad, Talal, 155, 214 n. 21
asceticism, 213 n. 18, 220 n. 16
Askari, Muhammad Hasan Rizvi, 194, 215
n. 25
aspiration: Muslim 7, 10–11, 13, 18–19,
57, 63, 92–94, 100, 109, 115, 121–24,
141, 145, 149, 155, 157, 171–72, 174–75,
179, 183–84, 198, 202–4; genealogy of,
55–90; scenes of, 22–54, 146, 188; in
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