his book set out to take Muslim fashion seriously as fashion and to
explore how as designers, cultural intermediaries, and consumers
women were using dress to create and communicate a
range of modern identities to disparate viewers and communities. I ar-
gued that the increase in Orientalist civilizational presumptions about
Muslims after 9/11 has created an environment in which women (and
men) whose dress and presentation marks them as Muslim face increased
pressure, assault, and discrimination within a securitizing discourse that
locates Muslims outside the spaces and values of secular modernity. I have
shown this to be the case not only in the West (within the differently in-
flected Christian secularities of Europe and North America) but also in the
Muslim secularity of the Turkish republic, where the commercial develop-
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