CONCLUSION
TMuslim
his book set out to take Muslim fashion seriously as fashion and to
explore how as designers, cultural intermediaries, and consumers
women were using dress to create and communicate a
range of modern identities to disparate viewers and communities. I ar-
gued that the increase in Orientalist civilizational presumptions about
Muslims after 9/11 has created an environment in which women (and
men) whose dress and presentation marks them as Muslim face increased
pressure, assault, and discrimination within a securitizing discourse that
locates Muslims outside the spaces and values of secular modernity. I have
shown this to be the case not only in the West (within the differently in-
flected Christian secularities of Europe and North America) but also in the
Muslim secularity of the Turkish republic, where the commercial develop-
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