1. See Carla Jones and designer Dian Pelangi in discussion, Faith and Fashion,
London College of Fashion, March 6, 2014, accessed May 16, 2014, http://
2. For examples outside wena, see Schulz 2007.
3. While hijabi and niqabi have become standard usage in English, dejabi and
dehijabi have not yet gained the same currency, seen by some to imply too
much a rejection, rather than a modification, of modest embodiment; per-
sonal conversation Syima Aslam and Irna Qureshi, Bradford, March 18,
4. Young, British and Muslim: Academic Research and Real Lives, Manchester
Town Hall, November 22, 2011; see
_research_and_real_lives, accessed October 22, 2013.
5. Modest Dressing: Faith Based Fashion and Internet Retail, a research project
based at the London College of Fashion; see
/research- projects/completed-projects/modest-dressing/, accessed Octo-
ber 22, 2013.
6. Human resources managers quoted in chapter 7 spoke on condition that
their names and companies be kept confidential. All nonprofessional par-
ticipants appear with an alias. Further details appear in each chapter.
7. On hijab styles as visual protest in Iran, see Shirazi 2000.
8. On parallels in the hypervisibility and invisibility of British Arabs as Mus-
lim, see Nagel and Staeheli 2008.
Chapter 1: From Multiculture to Multifaith
Epigraph: Sarah Harris, “Young. British. Female. Muslim.” Times, May 29,
1. For a fuller discussion, see Gilliat- Ray 2010, Perfect 2011, and the find-
ings of British Religion in Numbers (2008–10), a statistical research project
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