Introduction Who Controls the Past Controls the Future
1 For analyses of the intersections of class, race, and gender, see, among oth
‘‘Raza/EtniayGénero,’’aspecialissueof Política y Cultura,no.14(autumn20
BeneríaandRoldán, The Crossroads of Class and Gender;Stephen, Zapotec Wo
and Zapata Lives; Gutmann, The Meanings of Macho; de la Cadena, Indige
2 ‘‘Men [and, he should have added,women] make theirown history, but the
themselves, but undercircumstances directly found, given and transmitted f
thepast.Thetraditionofallthedead generationsweighslikeanightmareon
brain of the living.’’ Marx, ‘‘The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte,’’
3 SeeJoanW.Scott’scaveat:‘‘Thepointof historicalinvestigationistodisrupt
appearance of timelessness.’’ ‘‘Gender: A Useful Category of Historical An
sis,’’ 1068.
4 Eric Hobsbawm famously wrote, ‘‘The most submissive peasantry is not
capable of ‘working the system to its advantage’—or rather to its minimum
advantage—but also of resisting and, where appropriate, of counterattack.’’
‘‘Peasants and Politics.’’
5 For essays emphasizing women’s exclusion from peasant proprietorship,
Deere and León, Rural Women and State Policy; León and Deere, La mujer
política agraria en américa latina.
6 IhaveadaptedtheterminologyTerenceJ.Byresdevelopsforadifferentpurp
see Capitalism from Above and Capitalism from Below.
7 See, among others, Tinsman, Partners in Conflict; Stern, The Secret Histor
Gender;Vaughan, Cultural Politics in Revolution;Besse, Restructuring Patriar
Arrom, The Women of Mexico City;Lavrin,‘‘WomeninSpanishAmericanC
nial Society’’ and Women, Feminism and Social Change; Rodríguez Sáenz, H
novias y esposas and Mujeres, Genero e Historia en América Central;Nazzari, Di
pearance of the Dowry; Guy, Sex and Danger in Buenos Aires; Klubock, Conte
Communities;Findlay, Imposing Decency;Caulfield, In Defense of Honor;Dore
Molyneux, The Hidden Histories of Gender; Rosemblatt, Gendered Comprom
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