Many hands and voices have coproduced the experiences, knowledge, and
text found in this book. I owe a great debt of gratitude to the individuals,
groups, and communities that have helped me along the way, and I apolo-
gize to any I fail to mention by name here.
I would like to first mahalo ke Akua, n¯a ‘aum¯akua, n¯a kini akua, a me n¯a
upuna for all the guidance, inspiration, and fortitude to ho‘omau in this
ha‘awina. My family has been the most direct conduit of the strength, love,
and support flowing from these sources, and so mahalo to my grandparents
Carol and George Tengan, Margaret Kamaka and David Carvalho; to my
parents Wendell Tengan and Davelynn Carvalho Tengan; to my brother
Michael John Tengan; and to members of the Reyes ‘ohana.
Mahalo to the men of the Hale Mua, who became something of a second
family to me beginning in 1997. Thank you for all you have given and taught
me, and I hope that this book helps to repay your generosity and maintain
the relations of reciprocity that have been established with your gifts. I
would like to thank especially those who have given me important feedback
on this and other versions of the text: Sam Ka‘ai, Kyle ak¯ anelua, Ka-
mana‘opono Crabbe, Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, K¯ukona Lopes, Richard
Bissen, Cli√ Alakai, K¯awika Ramos, Keoki Ki‘ili, K¯awika Davidson, Puka
Ho, ak¯ ı Cabatingan, Kamika ak¯ anelua, Wiliama Smith, Greg Nee, and
Glen Gibson (with Delaina Thomas). In particular I would like to thank
awika Ki‘ili, who served as an informal research assistant in 2006–07, re-
cording and transcribing follow-up interviews, gathering data, correspond-
ing with research participants, and critiquing my writing. Mahalo also to
all the men of the Hale Mua o K¯uali‘i for su√ering my absence as I wrote
this book.
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