Introduction: Lele i Ka P¯o
1. The Hawaiian comes from the Kal¯akaua text as included in Beckwith (1972, 187).
Beckwith’s translation appears on page 58. Owing to my hesitancy to translate
poetry, I have used Beckwith’s translation.
2. I use the terms ‘‘Kanaka ‘Oiwi,’’
‘‘ ‘Oiwi,’’
‘‘Kanaka Maoli,’’ ‘‘ ‘Oiwi
Maoli,’’ and
‘‘Kanaka’’ interchangeably with Hawaiian and Indigenous/Native Hawaiian.
The word ‘‘kanaka’’ means ‘‘person’’ and in certain contexts ‘‘man’’ (though it is
not gendered and can refer also to women). ‘‘ ‘Oiwi’’
is a term that associates
indigeneity with the iwi, the bones. The term ‘‘maoli’’ means ‘‘real, true.’’ When
the word ‘‘K¯anaka’’ takes the macron over the first ‘a,’ it represents the pluralized
form of the term, or ‘‘people’’ versus ‘‘person.’’
3. See McGregor (2004, 219) for discussion on militarization and Hawaiian men,
including participation in Vietnam. See Tengan (2008) for discussion of Nainoa
Hoe, and Fainaru (2005) for the Washington Post article on his life and death as an
American soldier. Ironically, his father, Allen Hoe, a Vietnam veteran, is also an
advocate for Hawaiian independence.
4. See Eagar 2006 and the Hawai‘i Tourism Authority Website (www.hawaiitour
ismauthority.org) for recent statistics. See also Blackford (2001) for a historical
overview of tourism on Maui and the response by environmentalists and Native
5. Despite any shortcomings, their article was an important contribution that repre-
sents one of, if not the first (and still one of the few) sustained treatments of
Hawaiian masculinity, and its appearance in the realm of popular culture signifi-
cantly helped to raise awareness and create dialogue where previously none was
taking place.
6. Parallels may be (and are) drawn with the representations of M¯aori men in the
film Once Were Warriors (1995). As I point to throughout this book, those are just
some of the comparisons and contrasts made between Hawaiians and M¯aoris. See
the conclusion.
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