1. See Frederick J. Dockstader, ‘‘The Revolt of Trader Boy: Oscar Howe and Indian Art,’’ Ameri-
canIndianArtMagazine 8.3 (summer 1983): 42–51; Mark AndrewWhite, ‘‘Oscar Howe and the
Transformation of Native American Art,’’ American Indian Art Magazine 23.1 (winter 1997):
36–43; and White, ‘‘Aesthetic Regeneration in Post–World War II Native American Painting,’’
paper presented at the Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting of the Midwest Art History Society,
April 8, 2000.
2. Oscar Howe to Jeanne Snodgrass, April 18, 1958. Jeanne Snodgrass King Collection, H. A. and
Mary K. Chapman Library, Philbrook Museum of Art, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
3. Alison R. Bernstein, American Indians and World WarTwo: Toward a New Era in Indian Aﬀairs
(Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 87.
4. In formulating these questions I am building on the work of Ann Eden Gibson, whose Abstract
Expressionism: Other Politics (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997) ﬁrst made the innova-
tive argument that race and identity are crucial categories for discussing postwar American
5. JohannesFabian, TimeandtheOther:HowAnthropologyMakesItsObject (NewYork:Columbia
University Press, 2002).
6. SeeGeorgeMarcusandFredMyers,eds., TheTraﬃcinCulture:ReﬁguringArtandAnthropology
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).
7. This critique was established forcefully by the ‘‘Primitivism’’ debates of the 1980s. See William
Rubin, ed., ‘‘Primitivism’’ inTwentieth Century Art: Aﬃnityof theTribal and the Modern (New
York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984). Most of the critical responses to moma’s Primitivism are
collected in Jack D. Flam, ed., Primitivism and Twentieth-Century Art: A Documentary History
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003). See also Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger,
eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
8. Edward Said, Orientalism (New York: Random House, 1978), 3.
9. George W. Stocking Jr., ‘‘The Dark-Skinned Savage: The Image of Primitive Man in Evolu-
tionary Anthropology,’’ in Race, Culture, and Evolution: Essays in the History of Anthropology
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982), 114.
10. See Shelly Errington, ‘‘What Became of Authentic Primitive Art?’’ Cultural Anthropology 9
(1994): 201–26; and Errington, The Death of Authentic Primitive Art and OtherTales of Progress
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).
11. J. J. Brody, Indian Painters and White Patrons (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press,
12. Ruth B. Phillips, ‘‘Performing the NativeWoman: Primitivism and Mimicry in EarlyTwentieth-