During the course of my research, I conducted dozens of interviews
with Malian veterans, political activists, and others. I am grateful to all
of them for their generosity, patience, and hospitality. Here I list the
interviews cited in this book, indicating whether they were conducted
in French (Fr.), Bamanankan (B.), or both. I regret to report that
several of those who spoke with me—notably, Sokouma Dembele,
Gaoussou Konaté, and Arouana Sidibe—have since passed away. I
have changed given names in three cases: those of Moussa Sidibe,
Oumou Sidibe, and Adama Sékou Traore.
odiouma bagayogo, World War II veteran, a leader of Mali’s
veterans, and president of the association of those who hold French
pensions. Maison du Combattant, Bamako, 6 March 1998 (Fr.).
commandant louis baron, veteran and o≈cer of African troops
in Southeast Asia, Algeria, and sub-Saharan Africa. Aix-en-
Provence, 9 October 1998 (Fr.).
sékou camara, interpreter, language instructor, and intellectual.
Sékou’s father, Seydou Camara, performed the song published by
Conrad, ‘‘Bilali of Faransekila.’’ Bamako, 26 July 1999 (Fr.).
‘‘dioula’’ moussa coulibaly, farmer, traveler, and organic intel-
lectual. Diabougou, 5 July 1998, 10 July 1998, 26 July 2002 (B.), with
Gomba Coulibaly, his nephew and my assistant.
nianson coulibaly, veteran of Indochina, former gendarme.
Koutiala, 11 February 1998 (Fr.), with Attaher Soﬁane.