Acknowledgments
working on debt, I incurred many of my own. Native Sons was
researched on three continents and written on four. Scores of people
helped, hosted, or humored me while I worked to produce it. In
Bamako, my jatigi Ousmane Traore, hajiya Madame Traore Miriam
Koné, and their family displayed endless patience and generosity. Aw
ni bàràji. My deep thanks also to Ali Niane, Dr. Maïga, their families,
and their neighbors in Magnambougou Projet. I am very grateful for
the hospitality and assistance of Gomba Coulibaly and his family in
San and Diabougou. They, along with the Frères du Sacré-Coeur and
Brother David Coulibaly, were gracious hosts. Also in San, the Sidibe
family was always welcoming, and the Abbé Felix Coulibaly granted
me access to the papers of Father Bernard de Rasilly. Attaher Sofiane
assisted me in Koutiala. Adama Sékou Traore showed me some of his
father’s private papers. At Kuluba, I am grateful for the goodwill of Ali
Ongoïba, director of Mali’s national archives, Alyadjidi Almouctar
(Alia) Baby, Timothée Saye, Abdoulaye Traore, and Youssouf Diarra.
In Paris and Montreuil, Jennifer and Thomas LaDonne were model
friends, just as in Chennai, Mr. and Mrs. Uttam Reddi and Srinivas
Mallu and Meenakshi Reddi were model hosts.
Many thanks for careful readings and illuminating criticisms to
Drs. John O. Hunwick, Jonathon Glassman, Jane I. Guyer, and
Robert Launay. Along with Jane, Sara Berry helped me make the
transition from ‘‘interested in’’ to ‘‘working on.’’ The support of Myron
Echenberg and Nancy Lawler has always been appreciated, as has that
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