I N D E X
Abu-Lughod, Janet, 456, 458 (plate 1)
Acamapichtli, 394, 395–97
Acosta, José de: comparative ethnology of, 9–12,
359–61; and the construction of colonial di√er-
ence, 465–66, 474–75, 477, 481–82, 496–97,
510–14; criticism of classical sources, 256n,
474–76; geocentrism of, 16, 19–23, 461, 464,
479–80; Historia natural y moral de las Indias,
xvii–xxvii, 1–6, 10–12, 460–61, 464, 467; on
knowledge, 480–81, 494–98; on native re-
ligious practices, 256n, 272–73, 292–93, 315,
324–27, 508–11; New World produce com-
pared to European varieties, 207, 209n, 215n,
221n; De procuranda Indorum salute, xxi, xxiii–
xxvi, 6, 381
Adorno, Rolena, 8n, 164n
Ahuitzotl, 420–21
Alphabetic writing, xxvii, 334–38, 507–8, 511
Altitude sickness (soroche), 98n, 118n, 119–21
Alva Ixtlilxochitl, Fernando de, 270n, 426n, 452,
459, 467, 507–8
Amazon River (Marañón River/River of
Orellana), 82, 83, 137, 141, 152
Amerindians: Amerindian intellectuals, 459, 467,
471–73, 481–82, 495, 507–8; arrival in New
World, xxiii, 51, 58–61, 63–68, 69–73, 71–72,
385–86n; conversion of, xxi, xxiii–xxvi, 49–50,
299, 387n, 455; debate of Valladolid, 455, 466,
508, 510; double consciousness of, 471, 472
(plate 6), 473, 481 (plate 13), 507–8; Euro-
pean invention of, 455–56; governments of, 74,
348–53, 359–61; Jews and, 69–71; navigational
methods of, 54, 58–59, 63–64; quipu, 73, 342–
44, 359, 487, 488–91 (plates 10–13); validity of
knowledge, 467, 470–71, 475–79, 484–85,
493–96, 508–9, 514; and writing, xxvii, 70, 73,
334–38, 339–42, 344–45, 507–8, 511. See also
Incas; Mexico (pre-Columbian)
Anahuac, xvii, xix, xx, 456, 458, 466, 467
Anderson, Benedict, 453
Andes, 72, 73n, 118n, 146–47, 201n, 255n, 342–
43n, 361, 515–16
Animals: arrival in New World, 61–63, 65–66,
232–33, 235–36; birds, 54, 65–66, 137, 147,
234–35, 237–39, 321–22, 431; domesticated,
65–66, 244, 245, 289; ecological impact of,
230–31, 247; horses, 130n, 149, 231, 490 (plate
12); livestock, 144, 145, 230–31; manatees,
128, 132, 133n; monkeys, 147, 218, 236, 240–
41; pigs, 137, 150, 239–40; sacrifices of, 289,
290, 302–3, 315–17, 321–22; sheep, 66, 149,
230, 235, 236, 244–46, 247; wild, 66, 147, 232–
33, 239–40, 242–43, 247
Antarctic Pole, 26–29, 37, 123, 151–52
Antipodes, 26, 29–32, 51
Arabs’ contribution to knowledge, 465–67, 511–
12
Araucanians, 79n, 124n, 151
Architecture, 279–80, 350–51n
Arequipa (Peru), 12n, 137, 145, 149, 154, 158
Arica (Peru), 60, 144, 149, 189
Aristotle: human habitation on earth, xxiii, 31,
34–35, 37, 39; meteorological theories of, 76–
77, 89, 93–94; natural history of, 100, 113, 234,
465; on navigation, 36–37, 53
Arrighi, Giovanni, 497, 500
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