1. See Orvar Löfgren (1999) for the history of the development of mass tour-
ism as the “laboratory” of subject making in Eu­rope and North Ame­rica.
Pál Nyíri (2009) also documents how tourism works as a training ground
for making modern subjectivity in China.
1. The “staged” aspect of tourist repre­sen­ta­tion has been a central topic
in the social studies of tourism since Dean MacCannell’s ([1976] 1999)
pioneering work, which draws from Erving Goffman’s (1959) discussion
of social interaction as per­for­mance. Although this book was inspired by
these discussions, its focus is slightly ­different. Instead of joining discus-
sions of how the staged tourist repre­sen­ta­tion is constructed, I would
argue that this analytic mode, which relies on the distinction between
the “stage” and “backstage,” derives from a very specific modern Western
epistemological framework. The notion of “authenticity” and the preoccu-
pation with this concept are products of this epistemological tradition (see
Handler 1986). Rather than revealing the staged aspect of guides’ per­for­
mances, this book intends to trace how the Japa­nese tour guides work as
mediators of incommensurable epistemological frameworks. Here, I draw
on Timothy Mitchell’s (1988) critique of modern Western epistemological
technology, which ­ orders things based on the separation between repre­
sen­ta­tion and what is represented, and the strong belief that a truthful,
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