Illustrations
1. Clotel’s emancipatory/suicidal leap into the Potomac. 41
2. Afflicted by the onset of the ‘‘solitary vice,’’ three individuals suffer a
range of symptoms that impair virtuous citizenship. 73
3. Imports of European contraptions were sold to help men in the
United States emancipate themselves from enslaving physical
‘‘habits.’’ 87
4 and 5. The fear of autoeroticism as a collective disease. 92
6 and 7. The ideal citizen, unlike the slave of Northern liberal
imagination, has no difficulty achieving disembodiment. 95
8. Hiram Mattison’s Spirit Rapping Unveiled! lampoons the sedate and
unconscious female medium as channeler of spiritual forces that
produce havoc and consternation. 110
9. The magnetic connection of mesmerist and medium. 116
10. In cases of writing mediumship, the pen could levitate on its own
to scratch out messages. 126
11. Kate Fox. 127
12. A circle of spirit rappers in session. 133
13. The spirits often signed their names to the political and utopian
declarations they transmitted through mediums. 135
14. The graffiti on this woman’s body registers the difficulties and
drawbacks of inhabiting a body marked by culture and history. 138
15.Abraham Lincoln consults a clairvoyant. 170
16 and 17. If writing mediums conveyed messages from the spirit land,
was there any assurance that the spirits were benevolent and free of
carnal impurity? 179
18. Portrait of Louisa Picquet. 181
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