This book could not have been written without the generosity of many
people who gave me places to research and who read the manuscript as it
slowly was transformed into a book. Professors Susumu Miyao and Kazu-
nori Wakisaka of the Centro de Estudos Nipo-Brasileiros invited me to
spend a year as a fellow, as did Thomas Skidmore at the Thomas Watson
Institute's Center for Latin American Studies at Brown University. In Bra-
zil, Roney Cytrynowicz, Samy Katz, Marcos Chor Maio, Koichi MOri, Mar-
gareth Rago, Alfredo Tolmasquim, and Celso Zilbovicius provided me with
constant intellectual stimulation, as did Walter J. J. Davila, Marc Forster,
and Kerry Smith in the United States.
Roney Cytrynowicz, Walter J. J. Davila, Marc Forster, Leo Spitzer, Gail
and Barbara Weinstein read the entire manuscript in various forms,
and anything good in this work stems from their excellent and provoca-
tive criticisms, comments, and suggestions. Valerie Milholland of the Duke
University Press has been an ideal editor, and her support for and inter-
est in this project have been invaluable. I am additionally grateful to Beth
Wilson for her fine copyediting.
Many people took me into their homes, gave me advice and help, or
read large parts of the manuscript. Each, in his or her own way, has im-
proved this book greatly. Many thanks thus go to Anita Allen, George
Reid Andrews, Laura Barnebey, Ilana Blaj, Gabriel and Clelia Bolaffi, Dain
Borges, Adriana Brodsky, Heloisa Buarque, Sueann Caufield, Doug Cope,
Maria Celia da Costa, Todd Diacon, Anani Dzidzienyo, Boris Fausto, Ronald
Florence, the late Dr. Guido Fonseca, Gina Foster, Rene Gertz, Ilton and
Ana Gitz, Monica Grin, Roberto Griin, Shuhei Hosokawa, Gilbert Joseph,
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