Careful readers will note that the sources used for this book are in a multitude
of languages. I would like to be fluent in them all, but I am not. In the case of
Japanese newspapers, I have used the official Brazilian translations of articles pro-
vided by the Itamaraty and have checked them with specialists. Other transla-
tions from Japanese have been provided by generous colleagues who are thanked
in the endnotes. In the case of Arabic, I have used the translations as published
in the works themselves. Translations from French, German, Italian, Portuguese,
and Spanish, I have done myself. I have also modernized all Portuguese spellings
in the text and notes, except for book titles. Any exceptions to this rule are noted.
1 Report on Escola General Trompowsky, 1935. Anisio Teixeira Papers, AT pi
35.00.00, Escola General Trompowsky. Centro de Pesquisa e Documenta!;ao de
Historia Contemporanea do Brasil, Funda!;ao Get11lio Vargas, Rio de Janeiro [here-
after CPDOC-R]. My thanks to Jerry Davila for sharing this document with me.
The Hidden Hypen
Jomal do Imigrante
(September 1981), p.
Jomal do Imi-
a small weekly newspaper aimed at the descendants of European immi-
grants, generally contained stories about events connected to maintaining pre-
migratory culture or celebrating immigrant culture in Brazil.
Ethnically oriented magazines have become quite numerous in Brazil. Other re-
cently introduced titles are
Ra(a, Made in Japan, Tomodaty Jovern,
3 Liner notes to
(Sao Paulo: Comercial Fonogrcifica RGE, 1996); Roney
1922-1997 (Sao Paulo: Sociedade Hebraico-