Notes and References
Debra A. Moddelmog, "The Unifying Consciousness of a Divided Conscience:
Nick Adams as Author of In Our Time"
1 The Nick Adams Stories (New York: Scribner's, 1972). All references to this work are to the
Bantam edition (1973) and are designated NAS in the text.
2 Philip Young, for instance, asserts that "the 'he,' the consciousness of the piece, shifts
from Nick to Hemingway back to Nick again"-'"Big World Out There': The Nick
Adams Stories," in The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway: Critical Essays, ed. Jackson J.
Benson (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1975), p. 31. Paul Smith also criticizes
this passage, citing as its most incriminating sentence: "He, Nick, had wanted to write
about country so it would be there like Cezanne had done it in painting" (NAS, 218).
Smith maintains that the unnecessary appositive here emphasizes the "autobiographi-
cal character" of this ending: "it is as if [Hemingway] had to remind himself he was
writing a work of fiction"-"Hemingway's Early Manuscripts: The Theory and Practice
of Omission," Journal of Modern Literature 10 (1983): 282.
3 Consider, for example, Chaman Nahal's discussion of this ending in The Narrative
Pattern in Ernest Hemingway's Fiction (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University
Press, 1971), pp. 193~4.
4 "He Made Him Up: 'Big Two-Hearted River' as Doppelganger," in Critical Essays on
Ernest Hemingway's "In Our Time," ed. Michael S. Reynolds (Boston: Hall, 1983), pp.
5 Hemingway's Nick Adams (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982), p. 181.
6 In Ernest Hemingway: Selected Letters 1917-1961, ed. Carlos Baker (New York: Scribner's
1981 ), p. 133·
7 Possibly it was Gertrude Stein who alerted Hemingway to the problem with this
ending. In The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas she recalls that in the fall of 1924
Hemingway "had added to his stories a little story of meditations and in these he said
that The Enormous Room was the greatest book he had ever read" [Nick actually says it
was "one of the great books," NAS, 219]. It was then that Gertrude Stein had said,
"Hemingway, remarks are not literature"-(New York: Random House, 1933), p. 219.
Pointed out by Paul Smith, p. 284.
8 Hemingway's Nick Adams, p. 189.
9 Ernest Hemingway: A Reconsideration (University Park: Pennsylvania State University
Press, 1966), p. 62.
10 In Our Time (New York: Scribner's 1930). All references are to this edition and are
designated lOT in the text.
11 Carlos Baker notes that during the decade when Hemingway wrote his first forty-five
stories, "he was unwilling to stray very far from the life he knew by direct personal
contact, or to do any more guessing than was absolutely necessary"-Hemingway: The
Writer as Artist, fourth ed. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), p. 128.
12 Kenneth Lynn traces this reading to Edmund Wilson's "Ernest Hemingway: Bourdon
Gauge of Morale" (1939) and Malcolm Cowley'S introduction to the Viking Portable
Hemingway (1944)-Lynn, Hemingway (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987), pp.