Michel de Certeau, The Writing of History, trans. Tom Conley (New York:
Columbia University Press, 1988).
William Pietz, "The Problem of the Fetish, I, II, lIla," a series of articles
published in Res 9 (1985),5-17; Res 23 (1987), 23-42; Res 16 (1988),105-123.
3. Donna Haraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of
Modern Science (New York: Routledge, 1989),3.
4. See, for instance, "Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism
and the Privilege of Partial Perspective" in Simians. Cyborgs, and Women: The Re-
invention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991), 183-201.
5. Fernand Hallyn, The Poetic Structure of the World: Copernicus and Kepler, trans.
Donald M. Leslie (New York: Zone Books, 1990). I regret that I discovered this
book too late in my own researches to make adequate use of its extended analyses of
two canonical figures in the history of science and of topics that in many ways
parallel my own. His discussion of the hypothesis, for instance, has much in com-
mon with the abbreviated treatment I offer of the subject in chapter
6. Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans.
John Cumming (New York: Continuum, 1972).
7. Michel Foucault, Introduction to Georges Canguilhem, The Normal and the
Pathological, trans. Carolyn R. Fawcett, with Robert S. Cohen (New York: Zone
Books, 1991), 11-12.
8. The Archaeology of Kn()Wledge, trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith (New York:
Harper and Row, 1972),57; see also 126-131.
1. These are a series of more than thirty images made between 1988 and 1990,
Thomas Kellein, "How difficult are portraits; How difficult are peo-
ple!" in Cindy Sherman
(exhibition catalog; Basel: Kunsthalle, 1991), ro.