IntroductIon: StakIng FamIly claImS
1. Consider Dorothy and Thomas Hoobler’s The Mexican American Family Al-
bum (1994), a general, pictorial history of Chicanos that has on its cover a
photo of the “Ramírez family of Nietos, California, around 1890” while the last
image in the book is of a “1990s family reunion.”
2. In his formulation of the term, Ferguson (2004, 6) draws from Karl Marx in The
German Ideology who “universalized heteropatriarchy as he theorized prop-
erty ownership.” “For Marx,” Ferguson importantly reminds us, “tribal owner-
ship presumed a natural division of labor symbolized by the heterosexual and
patriarchal family” (2004, 6).
3. Although “Chicano” and “Chicano/a” may be used interchangeably, the singu-
lar use of “Chicano” more often than not foregrounds masculine signiﬁcation.
Also, although distinctions may be made between the two terms, I use “ma-
chismo” interchangeably with “masculinity.” I believe they fundamentally over-
lap, particularly when used, as Alma García notes, “within a Chicano context.”
I will further discuss this issue in chapter 1.
4. Foundational texts that have also influenced this thinking on nationalism and
gender and sexual politics include George L. Mosse’s Nationalism and Sexual-
ity: Middle-Class Morality and Sexual Norms in Modern Europe (1985), Doris
Sommer’s Foundational Fictions: The National Romances of Latin America
(1991), and the anthology Nationalisms and Sexualities (1991), edited by An-
drew Parker, Mary Russo, Doris Sommer, and Patricia Yaeger.
5. Benedict Anderson (1983) distinguishes between nation-states and nation for-
mation vis-à-vis citizenship. See also Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth
(1963), John Breuilly’s Nationalism and the State (1982), Partha Chatterjee’s The
Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (1993), James
Cliﬀord’s “Routes” (1997), Neil Lazarus’s Nationalism and Cultural Practice in
the Postcolonial World (1997), and Emma Pérez’s The Decolonial Imaginary:
Writing Chicanas into History (1999) for more on this point.