1 These two case studies are adapted from my article, “Compliance Is Gendered:
Transgender Survival and Social Welfare,” in Transgender Rights: History, Politics
and Law, eds. Paisley Currah, Shannon Minter, and Richard Juang, (Minneapo-
lis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), 217–241.
2 “Intersex” is a term used to describe people who have physical conditions that
medical professionals assert make them difficult to classify under current medi-
cal understandings of what constitutes a “male” or “female” body. Because of
these understandings, they are often targets for medical intervention in child-
hood to make their bodies conform to gender norms. Extensive advocacy has
been undertaken to stop these interventions and allow people with intersex
conditions to choose whether or not they desire medical intervention that would
bring their bodies into greater compliance with gender norms. Jim is a person
with an intersex condition who is also transgender, but there is no evidence
that people with intersex conditions are more or less likely than others to have
a trans identity. For more information, see www . isna . org.
3 I have not included a complete list of current policies in this volume because
they change frequently. However, my article “Documenting Gender,” Hastings
Law Journal 59 (2008): 731–842, includes descriptions of state and local policies
and their requirements as they existed at the time of publication. Advocacy orga-
nizations such as the Sylvia Rivera Law Pro ject (www ., the National Gay
and Lesbian Task Force (www . thetaskforce . org), the National Center for Lesbian
Rights (www . nclrights . org) and the National Center for Transgender Equality
(www . nctequality . org) can be contacted to obtain updates about changes to
these policies.
4 See, e.g., Ruth Wilson Gilmore, Golden Gulag: Prisons, Surplus, Crisis, and Oppo-
sition in Globalizing California (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of Califor-
nia Press, 2007); Angela Y. Davis, Are Prisons Obsolete? (New York: Seven Stories
Press, 2003); Grace Kyungwon Hong, The Ruptures of American Capital: Women
of Color Feminism and the Culture of Immigrant Labor (Minneapolis: University
of Minnesota Press, 2006); Roderick Ferguson, Aberrations in Black: Toward
a Queer of Color Critique (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003);
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