Zeybek, one of the terms of endearment used for Atatürk, is translated by the
Redhouse dictionary as ‘‘swashbuckling village lad of southwestern Anatolia.’’
My use of the concept of the political field is inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s (1993)
definition of the field in cultural production. I take the political field as a relatively
autonomous but also as a dynamic structure that is prone to change as the position
of individual agents or other related fields alter.
I follow Edmund Amann and Werner Baer (2002) in defining neoliberalism and ex-
plaining its emergence in Turkey as parallel to those they observed in Latin America:
‘‘The old paradigms of development through import substitution industrialization
(isi), in a closed economy setting, with a large role for the state, were jettisoned in
favor of an open economy for the state, with an exit of the state through massive
privatization and predominance of market forces. The convergence of the region
within the neo-liberal paradigm can only partially be attributed to a general recogni-
tion of the ine≈ciencies associated with isi. In addition, the adoption of the new
policy framework was the result of a comprehensive shift in international relations
power relationships. With Latin American economies desperately in need of capital
inflows following the debt crisis of the early 1980s, policy makers in the region
found themselves under unprecedented pressure to accept the prescriptions of
multilateral international financial institutions, backed by the major industrial
countries and the principal creditors of the region’’ (Amann and Baer 2002, 945). In
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