1. Kate Hohman, then a PhD student in anthropology at Columbia University, con-
nected me to her partner, Chad Beck, who was one of the editors of the ﬁlm.
2. A ‘‘Hollywood studio ﬁlm’’ may also originate within a separate production com-
pany that then sells the package to the studio. These companies might be called
‘‘independent production companies,’’ but they do not make independent ﬁlms in
the sense deﬁned here. They make ‘‘Hollywood’’ or ‘‘studio-oriented’’ ﬁlms.
3. See also Levy (1999) and G. King (2005) for attempts to deﬁne the genre.
4. A big nod here to Netflix and dvd technology, without which this project in this
form would have been virtually impossible.
5. Later represented as ‘‘the Center for Transnational Cultural Studies’’ rather than
6. See Desai (2003) for a similar argument about the emergence of a new cinema in
India that sees itself in terms very similar to American independent ﬁlm. One
could call it ‘‘not Bollywood,’’ though Desai does not use the phrase.
7. I was living in Ann Arbor, Michigan, at the time, collecting material for my then-
new project on social class in America.
8. On the ways in which the middle class and the working class in America serve as
mirrors for each other’s fears, see Ortner ( 2006b).
9. This section represents a condensation of Ortner ( 2006c).
10. The reasons for expanding the time frame have been variously given, but 1961–81
is now the generally accepted period. The whole question of deﬁning and dating
‘‘generations’’ has been questioned (see Ortner  2006b).
11. There is also a book on what Gen Xers were watching on television when they
were growing up, as Gen X is viewed as the ﬁrst generation to have been very
strongly shaped by tv (Owen 1997). Thanks to Eric Vanstrom, who assembled an
excellent bibliography for me on the relationship between (independent) ﬁlm
and Generation X.
12. Rosten had a PhD from the University of Chicago, but he earned his living as a