1. For an interesting examination of Parker’s improvisational genius, see Martin,
Charlie Parker and Thematic Improvisation. For speciﬁc discussions about the his-
tory and performance of the song “Now’s the Time,” see Priestly, Chasin’ the Bird,
57–58, 109–10, 113–14, 209–10.
2. The “Motown sound” not only revolutionized rhythm and blues but served as
protest music on the picket line: see Smith, Dancing in the Street, 4–5, 221–22.
3. Lipsky, “Protest as a Political Resource,” 55; Pitkin, The Concept of Representation.
4. See Gotham, “Political Opportunity, Community Identity, and the Emergence of
Local Anti-Expressway Movement”; Haines, “Issue Structure, ‘Frameability,’ and
Political Opportunity”; Meyer and Staggenborg, “Movements, Countermovements,
and the Structure of Political Opportunity.”
5. Again, see Goodwin and Jasper, “Caught in the Winding, Snarling Vine.” But in all
fairness, some of the most prominent theorists of political opportunity structure
are among its most adept critics: see Gamson and Meyer, “Framing Political Op-
6. “Millions Join Global Anti-War Protests,” BBC News Online, 2003, available at
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2765215.stm (accessed September 29,
2007); Whoriskey, “Thousands Protest Blacks’ Treatment.”
7. Halpern, Rebuilding the Inner City; Smith, We Have No Leaders; Jackson, “The State,
the Movement, and the Urban Poor”; Reed, “Sources of Demobilization in the
New Black Political Regime.” For a broader discussion, see Shaw, “The Expanding
Boundaries of Black Politics.”
8. Halpern, Rebuilding the Inner City; Jackson, “The State, the Movement, and the
Urban Poor”; Reed, “Sources of Demobilization in the New Black Political Regime,”
120; Rustin, “From Protest to Politics”; Smith, We Have No Leaders, 3–26.
9. Jennings, The Politics of Black Empowerment, 32; Thompson, Double Trouble, 23.
10. Among the data I present are those of Olzak and West, Ethnic Collective Action in
Contemporary Urban U.S.
11. Spence, “Strings of Life.” For a discussion of welfare-rights unions in New York
City, see Tait, “Workers Just like Anyone Else.”