1. Florencia Mallon offers useful definitions of colonialism and decolonization in
relation to indigenous peoples in Mallon, “Introduction: Decolonizing Knowledge,
Language and Narrative,” 1.
2. See Drinot, Che’s Travels.
3. See Mallon, “Barbudos, Warriors, and Rotos,” 179–215.
4. Heilman, Before the Shining Path, 198–200.
5. It is impossible to quantify Peru’s contemporary indigenous population. The last
time the Peruvian census classified people by race was 1940, and today, many people
who are identified by others as indigenous do not self-identify that way. The reverse is
also true. Scholar David Sulmont has shown that estimates of the percentage of Peru’s
indigenous population thus vary widely, from as low as 19 percent to as high as 75 per-
cent. The best estimates seem to fall in the 35–39 percent range. See Sulmont, “Race,
Ethnicity and Politics in Three Peruvian Localities,” 47–78.
6. Handelman, Struggle in the Andes, 25.
7. For the Peruvian case, see Contreras, El aprendizaje del capitalismo; Jacobsen,
Mirages of Transition; Mallon, The Defense of Community; Manrique, Yawar Mayu.
8. One of the most famous discussions of this process is Matos Mar, Desborde Popu-
lar y Crisis del Estado.
9. For excellent new research on Latin America’s experience of the Cold War, see
Grandin and Joseph, A Century of Revolution; Joseph and Spenser, In from the Cold.
10. Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (cvr), Informe Final.
11. Heilman, Before the Shining Path.
12. Gorriti, Shining Path, 47. The book was originally published in Spanish as Sen-
dero: Historia de la guerra milenaria en el Perú (Lima: Editorial Apoyo, 1990).
13. cvr, Informe Final, vol. 2, chap. 1.1, subsection 2: Partido Comunista del Perú-
Sendero Luminoso (Peruvian Communist Party-Shining Path, pcp-sl) 1980–82, 36.
14. Like most early twentieth-century Marxists, Gramsci believed that peasants
were incapable of generating independent political thought and thus were unable to
become “organic intellectuals.” See Forgacs, An Antonio Gramsci Reader, 302, 309.
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