Diversity and the Social
Questions of Reason
How can we find the best model of a philosophical method to concep-
tualize the diversity of reason in experience? This is a unique problem
because diversity as such can be thought about only through the idea of
identity.∞ Similarly, we can understand identity, but only in the thought
of what it is not: diversity. It is, therefore, all the more difficult to think
diversity when the diversity in question is diversity in reason itself.
We can attempt to bypass this difficulty by projecting the idea of
diversity into surrogate practical concepts, such as multiplicity, plural-
ism, or multiculturalism. But all of these concepts are elusive. Let us
take, for example, the most current of them, multiculturalism. It is be-
lieved, on the one hand, that multiculturalism is about heterogeneity
and therefore about the problem of multiple identities.≤ From the point
of view of the currently fashionable uses of the concept, Adorno was one
of the first to theorize this idea of identity as a form of multiplicity. In his
Hegelian book on aesthetics, Adorno argued that ‘‘matters of true philo-
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