Index
Ackerman, Bruce, 105–6, 108
Adair v. United States (1908), 54–55, 59
African Americans: effect of emigrant
agent laws on, 25–27; effect of facially
neutral labor laws on, 111; effect of
licensing law on physicians, 41–44;
exclusion from plumbers’ unions dur-
ing Lochner era, 32; harm from post-
Reconstruction legislation, 5–7; im-
portance as political constituency, 107,
111–12; licensing laws restricting, 31–
44; living standards (1895–1915), 11;
political weakness in New Deal era,
106; in post–Civil War labor market,
8–10; post–New Deal political will to
aid, 107; treatment under 1964 Civil
Rights Act, 98; unpopularity of nra
among, 93; view of Wagner Act, 95. See
also Migration, African American;
Railroad workers, African American;
Workers, African American
Agricultural Adjustment Acts (aaa), 103
A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United
States (1935), 94
Allgeyer v. Louisiana (1897), 30
Allgood, Miles, 78
American Federation of Labor (afl):
merge with cio (1955), 96; racial dis-
crimination in, 89–90
American Medical Association (ama):
state-level medical licensing by, 43–
44; support for physicians’ monopoly
status, 42
American Railway Union: formed by
Debs, 54; strike (1894), 54
Association of Colored Railway Train-
men, 53
Atkin v. Kansas (1903), 67–68
Ayres, Ian, 112
Bacon, Robert, 73–74, 76, 78
Barbers, African American, 38
Barbers’ Protective Association, 38
Bell, Derrick, 54
Blacksmiths’ union, 47
Blair, Algernon, 73, 76
Black Codes, 8–10
Boilermakers’ union, 47
Boswell, Luther, 18
Brewer, Justice David J., 68
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers,
47, 48
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen
and Trainmen, 47–49, 61–63
Brotherhood of Maintenance of Way
Employees, 47
Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, 47
Brotherhood of Railway & Steamship
Clerks v. United Transport Service
Employees (1943), 60
Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, 47–
48, 50, 52
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 64
Brown v. Board of Education (1954),
108
Campbell v. New York (1927), 72
Cardozo, Justice Benjamin, 72–73
Carey, Archibald J., 92
Carpenters’ union, 72
Cayton, Horace, 97
Chaires v. Atlanta (1927), 37
Chesnutt, Charles, 56, 63
Chicago Defender, 26
Civil Rights Act: of 1866, 8; of 1964, 83,
98
Civil rights plank, Democratic Party, 107
Class legislation, 3, 13, 23, 56, 99, 108,
115
Previous Page Next Page