This project started as a dissertation under the guidance of Barbara
Harlow, with the able assistance of Elizabeth Butler Cullingford, Bernth
Lindfors, Ann Cvetkovich, and Richard Lariviere. I consider myself par-
ticularly fortunate to have studied with Barbara Harlow, whose geopoliti-
cal and institutional analyses, intellectual fearlessness, and generosity of
spirit continue to serve as a model. Without her persistent reminders of
the necessity of examining the writing of Dutt and Cousins, combined
with her ubiquitous deadlines, this project could not have been con-
ceptualized or completed. Its central concern with organizing was very
much influenced by the activist climate at the University of Texas at Austin
during the late 1980s and early 1990s. A number of activists and academ-
ics, in some cases both, commented on the manuscript at an early stage;
for such input, I am grateful to Hossam Aboul-Ela, Danica Finley, Rachel
Jennings, Laura E. Lyons, Luis Marentes, Louise Meintjes, Louis Men-
doza, Supriya Nair, and S. Shankar. Other activists—in Austin and in
Bloomington, Indiana—helped formulate the organizational questions
which inform this study through their example, including Pedro Bustos-
Aguilar, Steve Carr, Milton Fisk, Amber Gallup, Carrie Hattic, Suzanne
Henry, Charley MacMartin, Kathy Mitchell, Hatem Natsheh, Ana Sisnett,
Sandy Soto, and John Zuern.
I am indebted to Bipasa Bose Nadon for aiding me with the legal
research for chapter 1, Joginder and Harbans Bhola for generously pro-
viding source material on the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Jane Manaster
for introducing me to tombs and tomes, Sangeeta Ray for her extremely
helpful suggestions on chapter 3, and Fred Kameny for his excellent
editorial advice.
A number of my colleagues at Indiana University read and meticu-
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