his book had its origins in a dissertation, and before that,
in a seminar paper, and before that in a methodology
course, all directed by John H. Coatsworth. His training
in the quantitative approach to history gave me the tools to work
on these problems. I am profoundly grateful for his criticism and
his support during a decade of research, writing, and rewriting. I
hope that those who know the work of Friedrich Katz will find the
imprint of his training on these pages as well, particularly in regard
to regional social variation. The magnitude of his kindness is well-
known to all who have enjoyed the privilege of working with him. I
am also grateful to Frank Safford, who read the dissertation on
short notice; his extensive and insightful comments led to many
improvements. Without the encouragement and guidance of Bar-
bara A. Tenenbaum, I might never have attempted this project, or
might never have become a historian. Her teaching inspired me to
study Latin America and nineteenth-century Mexico.
Dra. Josefina Vazquez, Director of the Centro de Estudios
Hist6ricos at El Colegio de Mexico, welcomed me for a term there
as an investigador visitante. Since then, she has read several portions
of the manuscript and provided invaluable criticism. Edith Coutu-
rier, Charles A. Hale, Hugh H. Hamill, Lyman L. Johnson, John
E. Kicza, Douglas V. Porpora, Robert A. Potash, Peter H. Smith,
John Tutino, Eric Van Young, Stuart Voss, Mark Wasserman, and
Weber have also commented on various portions of the
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