1. SECURITY, RIGHTS, AND THE LAW
1. The actual percentage of the Bolivian population that counts itself as indige-
nous is difﬁcult to measure. According to national census ﬁgures, the self-
identifying indigenous population in Bolivia is about 60 percent. Other esti-
mates place it even higher. Bolivia is commonly referred to in the international
press as being the ‘‘most indigenous’’ country in Latin America, making Evo’s
election seem like something of a foregone conclusion.
2. The media luna region of Bolivia (so-called for its crescent shape) consists of
the departments of Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz, and Tarija, with Chuquisaca
sometimes included as well. The region’s principal characteristic is that its
population is publicly identiﬁed as majority nonindigenous.
3. Simon Romero, ‘‘Bolivians Ratify New Constitution,’’ New York Times, Janu-
ary 25, 2009.
4. Evo has maintained a strong and publicly close relationship with President
Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, whose government has been a principal pro-
vider of economic aid to Bolivia. This relationship has been the source of
some resentment (and much humor) in Bolivia, with some regarding the ties
between the two presidents as detrimental to Bolivia’s sovereignty.
5. One of the problems that legislators wrestled with following the approval of
the new constitution was how to legally implement many of its community
justice provisions. The issue of jurisdiction was a particularly thorny issue.
Would nonindigenous people be subjected to indigenous law, if they were
accused of a crime in an indigenous jurisdiction? What about members of
other indigenous groups? These and many other issues were still unresolved
at the time of this writing, but similar issues have plagued community justice
efforts in other Andean countries (for example, see Vintimilla Saldaña, Al-
meida Mariño, and Saldaña Abad 2007).