Index
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administration of exclusion, 1–2, 20, 67–
113, 162–63; age factors in, 99, 102;
certificates of identification and, 88;
Chinese Confession Program, 15, 116–
31, 175–76n12; Chinese stereotypes
in, 44–46, 95–102, 170n22, 173n76;
chronology of Chinese Exclusion
Laws, 14–15; coordination and sys-
tematization of, 77–94, 103–13, 141–
60; current practices in, 149; detention
facilities, 110–13; expulsions and
deportations, 135–40, 158; fraudulent
activities in, 34–36, 169n6; history of
means in, 3–4, 165n12; ignorance of
Chinese customs in, 41–47, 109;
institutional legacies of, 149–60;
knowledge of China in, 67–71, 76–77;
language problems in, 43–44, 67–68,
86, 106–9, 176n39; maintenance and
retrieval of records in, 109–10; medical
exclusions in, 94–95; o≈cial forms
of, 89–91; physical identification in, 2,
4, 44–46, 95–102, 170n22, 173n76;
record keeping in, 105–6, 109–10;
relationship between policies and
immigrants and, 3–4, 67, 76–77, 115,
148–49, 165n8, 177n59; separation of
Chinese from others in, 30–31; shifts
of jurisdiction of, 19–20, 31–32, 88–
89, 103–5, 149, 157–58. See also discre-
tion, administrative; interrogation
procedures; legislation of exclusion
age factors, 99, 102
agricultural workers, 159
Angel Island, 95, 111–13
Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 27
anti-immigration movements, 156–59
appearance stereotypes, 44–46, 95–102,
170n22, 173n76
Arab immigrant exclusion, 6
Asian American Movement, 119–20,
175n9
Asian immigrant exclusion, 6, 27, 111,
155
Asiatic Barred Zone, 6, 27
Barbarian Virtues (Jacobson), 161–62
Bertillon system of identification, 95–99
border crossing, 33, 168–69n1
border patrols, 14, 33
Boxer Rebellion, 27
Boyce, W., 84
bureaucracy of regulation. See admin-
istration of exclusion; discretion,
administrative; interrogation
procedures
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,
and Explosives, 158
Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration,
153
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