1 Political Strategy and Social Movement Outcomes
1 Mark Dowie, Losing Ground: American Environmentalism at the Close of theTwentieth Century (Cambridge:
mit Press, 1995), 76; Betty Zisk, ThePoliticsof Transformation:LocalActivisminthePeaceandEnvironmen-
talMovements (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992), 44–45; Aileen S. Kraditor, MeansandEndsinAmerican
Abolitionism:GarrisonandHisCriticsonStrategyandTactics,1834–1850 (New York: Vintage, 1970), 164.
2 John B. Finch, ‘‘What, Why, and How,’’ in The Peopleversus the LiquorTraﬃc, ed. Charles A. McNully
(Milwaukee: Literature Committee, iogt, 1887), 207; Daniel Dorchester, ‘‘An Argument for Con-
stitutionalProhibition,’’in TheConstitutionalProhibitionist, ed.J.N.Stearns(NewYork:NationalTem-
perance Societyand Publishing House, 1889), 9; D. Leigh Colvin, ProhibitionintheUnitedStates (New
York: George H. Doran, 1926), 360–61.
3 See, e.g., Alphonso A. Hopkins in WealthandWaste:ThePrinciplesof PoliticalEconomyintheirApplication
tothePresentProblemsofLabor,Law,andtheLiquorTraﬃc (NewYork: Funk and Wagnalls, 1895), 181–82.
4 F. A. Noble, ‘‘Waiting for Public Sentiment,’’ UnionSignal, 15 March 1883, 3.
5 The eighteen states that held constitutional prohibition referenda during the 1880s were Kansas,
Iowa, Ohio, Maine, Rhode Island, Michigan,Texas,Tennessee, Oregon,West Virginia, New Hamp-
shire, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, North Dakota, Washington, Connecticut and
6 In 1883 Ohio’s prohibition amendment received a majority of the yes and no votes cast, but not the
majority of all the votes cast at the election as required by the Ohio constitution. (Throughout this
book, the 1883 Ohio referendum will be considered a failure.) In 1884 Iowa drys had to settle for
statutory prohibition because the state Supreme Court invalidated constitutional prohibition on
technical grounds. In 1889 Rhode Island voters repealed their state’s prohibition amendment just
three years after its passage, and South Dakota voters adopted constitutional prohibition in 1889,
only to demand its repeal in 1896.
7 New Hampshire’s and Vermont’s prohibition laws were both passed during the ﬁrst wave of prohi-
bition agitation (1851–55). Iowa’s statutory prohibition law (1884) was effectively nulliﬁed in 1894
when the legislature enacted the Mulct Law, establishing a virtual system of licensing.