[30] Introduction
patent regimes and hence an ally of global civil society groups fighting for
access to medicines. Cipla’s history reveals a rec ord of consistent action in
its own market interests, and an attempt to define a market terrain in terms
of those interests; but it also reflects certain explicit nationalist and (more
recently) global humanitarian sentiments, in ways that open up questions
about the postcolonial and ethical investments of these market actors. I then
think through the global geopo litical landscape that structures these diff er-
ent ethical incorporations in antagonistic and power- laden ways. The con-
clusion is an attempt to think through the implications of this analy sis for
considering the future trajectories of politics engaging global biomedicine
and global capital.
At the end of each chapter is a postscript that spells out the chapter’s con-
cerns to pharmocracy as a po litically salient concept. It marks the site of
questions concerning the nature of the po litical as it emerges in and through
domains of health that are appropriated by global capital. These postscripts
do not provide answers or explanations; they are meant as a reminder that
the real challenge here—empirically, conceptually, and politically—is to re-
main attentive to how pharmocratic regimes put both health and democracy
at stake.
Situating Pharmocracy
It is impor tant to locate the analy sis of pharmocracy in this book in relation
to the specificities of place, history, and event that constitute its empirical
substance. The task here is not to provide some sort of comprehensive expla-
nation of what value or politics or knowledge is in some definitive sense as
much as it is to multiply the situations from which its vari ous articulations
can be seen. Each situated perspective from which this book is written—of
speculative, financialized, multinational phar maceutical capital, of public
scandal, of judicialization and the Indian courts, of mono poly capital, of In-
dian free market capitalism, and of global geopolitics— affords a locus for
observing articulations of value, politics, and knowledge.43
This book is immediately concerned with a very par ticular situation in
place and time, post-2005 India, in the domain of a specific industrial sec-
tor (phar maceuticals), and with politics concerning health. On the face of
it, the story that I am about to tell could be seen as one of a phar maceutical
industry acting and developing in the cause of more innovation and greater
ethical consciousness. But it could equally be seen as one of the expanding
domain of global capital and of multinational corporate hegemony, resulting
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