Introduction: Embedded Infrastructures
1 While Mumbai has a long and lively history of water-related contention stretch-
ing back to the nineteenth century (see Dossal 1988, 1997; Kidambi 2007; Klein
1986), this book shows how market reforms have introduced a very different set
of challenges.
2 The 2011 census reported that 62  percent of Mumbai’s population live in slums.
3 For a broad overview of Mumbai’s economy, see Chapter 2.2 “Economic Profile”
in the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai’s Greater Mumbai City Develop-
ment Plan (2005 to 2025).
4 In 2007 “The Mayor’s State of Environment Report for London” reported the city’s
per capita consumption (an estimate that was likely provided by Thames Water
itself rather than by some in de pendent evaluator) at 156 liters per day. The Mum-
bai Municipal Corporation (also not an in de pendent source) estimates Mumbai’s
daily per capita water availability at around 160 liters (Greater London Authority,
5 The term world- class city, which has become common parlance for Mumbai’s
urban transformation pro ject, was pop u larized by a 2003 report by the global
consultancy McKinsey and Com pany titled Vision Mumbai: Transforming Mumbai
into a World- Class City. The report was privately commissioned by the policy
advocacy group Bombay First, which was formed in 1992 (on the heels of India’s
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