N O T E S
1 TheSelectedWorksofMaoTsetung,vol. 1, dates this text as March 1926. Schram and Ho
however, have traced it back to December 1, 1925 (1994, 249). I have followed the
2 This is a standard trope inWestern accounts and seems to cover the full gamut of bo
book (1998) on the Shanghai underground Communist Party, through to more po
lar historical narratives such as Faligot and Kauﬀer’s (1989) work on the secret pol
ccp history becomes a series of factional disputes and betrayals. This approach te
to focus on individuals and factions rather than institutions.
3 The ﬁrst communist special branch was actually formed inWuhan after the commu
leadershipwas forced to flee Shanghai during the massacre of communists.This org
however, lasted for only three months.
4 This is the case, even when the narrative ‘‘invents’’ a later beginning to socialist po
ing. Wang Qiuxia, for example, sees the ﬁrst signs of the characteristically Chin
‘‘mass-line in policing’’ coming into being in the Soviet base camps after the failur
the Autumn Harvest Risings in 1927. By looking back over the mass protection w
ﬁrst developed there,Wang observes, one gets a sense of the tradition of contempo
public security in China.Yet all these manifestations of mass protection work—inc
ing the ‘‘red protection teams’’ (chiweidui), the ‘‘worker-peasant insurrectionary tea
(gongnongbaodongdui), theyoung pioneers (shaoxiandui), and the children’s corps (ert
tuan)—were all invented in the process of class struggle. See Wang Qiuxia 1994, 58
5 One may rightly object that, in the age of ‘‘seeking truth from facts,’’ the reductio
more recent police stories to variants of the ‘‘two-line struggle’’ plot line is unfair.
tainly, if one were to compare what was once told with what is now told, the lines
diﬀerent. Nevertheless, while one focused on the clarity of the two-line struggle,
more recent accounts focused on how the lines were blurred. They therefore sha
strange, if somewhat distant, kinship.
6 This phrase is famously associated with Carl Schmitt and he would, in fact, eventu
lay claim to it. As Heinrich Meier points out, however, the person who coined the
pression was not Schmitt but his friend Theodor Daubler (Meier 1998, 44).