1 The international effect of these television and video documentaries obviously de-
serves more than one line noting their quantity, but this is not a task I take up in
this book. For a related essay, see Roshanak Kheshti, “Cross- Dressing and Gender
(Tres)Passing: The Transgender Move as a Site of Agential Potential in the New Ira-
nian Cinema.” Hypatia 24, no. 3 (summer 2009): 158–77.
2 See, for instance, Doug Ireland, “Change Sex or Die: An Exclusive Interview with
an Iranian Transgendered Activist on Iran’s Surgical ‘Cure’ for Homosexuality.” May
11, 2007, accessed March 2, 2013,
3 Examples include an early short piece of mine, “Truth of Sex” (January 12, 2005,; and, more sub-
stantively, Raha Bahreini, “From Perversion to Pathology: Discourses and Practices
of Gender Policing in the Islamic Republic of Iran.” Muslim World Journal of Human
Rights 5, no. 1 (2008), For a critique
of arguments that tend “to emphasize the transsexual’s construction by the medical
establishment . . . [in which] the transsexual appears as medicine’s passive effect, a
kind of unwittingly technological product: a transsexual subject only because subject
to medical technology,” see Jay Prosser, Second Skins: The Body Narratives of Trans-
sexuality (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998), 7.
4 See Brady Thomas Heiner, “The Passions of Michel Foucault.” differences 14, no. 1
(2003): 22–52.
5 Michel de Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. by Steven Rendall (Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1984), 48.
6 I borrow this concept from Gregory Pflugfelder, Cartographies of Desire: Male- Male
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