one Introduction
1 To quote Bertram Brown, the former director of the National Institute of Men-
tal Health, in the 1950s ‘‘it was nearly impossible for a nonpsychoanalyst to be-
come chairman of a department or professor of psychiatry’’ (‘‘The Life of Psychia-
try,’’ 492).
2 World War II was a key point in the history of American psychoanalysis. The war
allowed for the first demonstrated ‘‘success’’ in the treatment of neurotic symp-
toms in noninstitutional settings: supportive psychotherapy, combined with rest
and food, allowed over 60 percent of frontline ‘‘neuropsychiatric casualties’’ to
return to combat duty within two to five days. Over the course of the war, the
numbers of physicians assigned to the neuropsychiatric corps jumped from thirty-
five in 1941 to twenty-four hundred in 1946. This success provoked the institu-
tionalization of the practice of psychiatry in the postwar period and the spread of
psychotherapy and psychoanalysis into broader clinical settings. In large part as
a result, psychoanalysts rose to assume leadership positions in American psychia-
try, also paving the way for the psychoanalyst William C. Menninger to become
in 1946 the first psychiatrist elevated to the rank of brigadier general. See Grob,
‘‘The Origins of DSM I,’’ 427.
3 Psychoanalytic concepts were requisite components of the training of all psy-
chiatrists. By 1955, eighty-seven of the ninety-three American psychiatric train-
ing programs taught psychodynamic concepts to their residents. These residents,
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