Introduction
1. Correio da Manhã, 12 November 1908, 10.
2. Excélsior, 15 January 1920, 8.
3. On sensationalism and melodrama as distinctly modern modes of cultural pro-
duction, see Wiltenburg, “True Crime,” 1378–80, and Brooks, The Melodramatic
Imagination, 14–17.
4. García Canclini, Hybrid Cultures, 1–3.
5. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, Estadísticas Históricas
de México, 90. Ministério da Agricultura, Indústria e Comércio, Recenseamento do
Brasil realizado em 1 de Setembro de 1920, vol. IV, part IV, ix. Literacy rates tended
to be considerably higher in urban areas. On crime statistics, see Piccato, City of
Suspects, 52–55, 79, 221–36; and Bretas, Ordem na cidade, 69, 83–86.
6. Haber, “Financial Markets and Industrial Development,” 147.
7. McCann, Hello, Hello, Brazil; Garramuño, Primitive Modernities.
8. Navitski, Silent and Early Sound Cinema,” forthcoming.
9. I thank Juan Sebastián Ospina León for his input on this point. On Argentine
silent cinema, see Losada, “Allegories of Authenticity in Argentine Cinema of the
1910s”; Tucker, “Páginas libres,” 132–36; Cuarterolo, Del foto al fotograma, 135–47.
10. For a sampling of key texts in this debate, see Vitali and Willemen, Theorising
National Cinemas and Hjort and MacKenzie, Cinema and Nation.
11. Debord, Society of the Spectacle, 2.
12. Gallo, Mexican Modernity; Borge, Latin American Writers and the Rise of Holly-
wood Cinema; Gabara, Errant Modernism; Conde, Consuming Visions.
13. Monica Dall’Asta, “Italian Serial Films and ‘International- Popular Culture,’” 305.
14. Schroeder-Rodríguez, “Latin American Silent Cinema,” 36. See also Paranaguá,
Tradición y modernidad.
15. See Vega Alfaro, Microhistorias del cine en México; de los Reyes, Cine y sociedad en
México 2:255–61; Ramírez, El cine yucateco; Tuñón, Historia de un sueño.
N OT E S
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