Epigraph: “Lambança [sic] não me faz medo / Nem choro não me faz dó [sic]: / Eu
te mando pra Fernande [sic, de Noronha] / Te meto no xilandró. . . . / Si resmungar,
leva peia! / Si chorar, leva cipó!” Leonardo Motta, Violeiros do norte, 86–87. I thank
Linda Lewin for sharing Severino Perigo’s verses. For more on Severino Perigo, see
Nei Lopes, Enciclopédia brasileira da Diáspora Africana, 164.
1. Carpenter used the phrase “ocean resort” in his novel, but I added the expres-
sion “Life of Riley” to describe his depiction of the lives of convicts on Fernando
de Noronha. Carpenter, Round about Rio, 328–29; “Cornell Men in Brazil,” Cornell
Alumni News, Ithaca, New York, May 9, 1906.
2. Beattie, “ ‘Born under the Cruel Rigor of Captivity’ ”; Hughes, Fatal Shore;
Redfi eld, Space in the Tropics; Edwards, “From the Depths of Patagonia”; Chekhov,
3. De Souza originally cited in Rodrigues et al., O parlamento e a evolução nacio-
nal, 2:345–346. Aufderheide cited and translated de Souza in “Order and Violence,”
308–309; on improper sentencing, see Bandeira Filho, “Informações,” 21.
4. In 1850, an imperial decision clarifi ed that slave convicts could not benefi t
from Article 311 of the Penal Code, which substituted the sentence of galés for that of
prison with work; see Brazil, Código Criminal do Imperio do Brazil, 26n23.
5. Barman, Brazil, the Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852; Carvalho, A construção da
ordem, ch. 3; Chalhoub, Visões da liberdade; Needell, Th e Party of Order; Pereira,
Visões da monarquia.
6. Fleury, “Parecer,” 5.
7. Hunt, Inventing Human Rights, 92; Algranti, O feitor ausente, 36.
8. Linebaugh, Th e London Hanged; Beattie, Policing and Punishment. Some U.S.
states experimented with the “milder” punishment of castration for slaves convicted